It is well known that there is a world-wide decrease of unexplored easy-to find structural traps. Consequently, we must turn our attention to subtle petroleum reservoirs such as stratigraphic traps, i.e. traps that are formed as a result of lateral and vertical variations in the thickness, texture, porosity or lithology of the reservoir rock.
Examples of this type of trap are an unconformity trap, a lens trap and a reef trap. These subtle traps require an overall more detailed analysis, thus increasing the need to extract more information from seismic data. One of the tools at hand, seismic sequence stratigraphy, has proved to have a great predictive potential for lithology and consequently reservoir, source rock and seal potential.
dGB offers complete seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation studies, that include:
- Chronostratigraphic horizon tracking
- Wheeler transformed seismic data (2D and 3D)
- Full systems tracts interpretations
- Seismic facies mapping
- Attributes analysis for visualization of Paleo-geomorphological features
The SSIS (Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretation System) plugin offers unique capabilities for sequence stratigraphers to analyze seismic data and to unravel the depositional history of sedimentary sequences. SSIS allows you to extract more information in a shorter time.
Chronostratigraphy, Systems tracts and Wheeler transforms are some of the features of SSIS.
Read more about the SSIS Plugin
Dip & azimuth maps are essential for visualization of paleo-geomorpological features, which are the first step towards a lithology prediction. Also unique attributes such as volume-curvature and variance of the dip are useful tools to extract subtle information from the data. Finally, dip-steering is used in the calculation of the data-driven chronostratigraphy (HorizonCube plugin).
Dip attribute reveals submarine channels, and sand ridges
Read More about the Dip-Steering plugin
HorizonCube is a game-changing technology that impacts every level of seismic interpretation. A HorizonCube consists of a dense set of correlated 3D stratigraphic surfaces that are assigned a relative geological age. The technology was initially developed for sequence stratigraphic interpretation and as such was part of the SSIS plugin where it was called chronostratigraphy. Because the technology has a much wider application range the HorizonCube became a separate plugin in v.4.2. Henceforth SSIS is an add-on to the HorizonCube that focuses on sequence stratigraphic interpretation and Wheeler transformations.
To create a HorizonCube the user inputs:
Input horizons are either imported, or mapped in OpendTect. Here the user has two options: to use OpendTect's conventional amplitude & similarity auto-tracker, or to use the new dip-steered auto-tracking algorithm incorporated in the HorizonCube. The advantages of the latter are speed and watertight intersections at fault planes. Also conventionally mapped / imported horizons can be made watertight at intersections with a new horizon trimming tool that comes with the HorizonCube plugin.
Read more about the HorizonCube plugin
The aim of unsupervised segmentation is to detect geologically meaningful patterns (3D bodies or 2D horizon-based areas) by visualizing patterns with similar seismic responses. The results increase our understanding of lithological variations that are for example due to sedimentary processes, depositional settings. The unsupervised approach provides an unbiased view of the data.
The example on the left shows a Seismic facies cube. The 3D objects represent similar seismic attribute responses, which are interpreted as channel deposits.
Read more about the Neural Network plugin
GMT (Generic Mapping Tools) is an open source collection of approx. 60 tools for the manipulation of geographic and Cartesian data sets (including filtering, trend fitting, gridding, projecting, etc.) and allows the production of Encapsulated PostScript File (EPS) illustrations ranging from simple x-y plots via scaled contour maps to artificially illuminated surfaces and 3-D perspective views.
Read more about GMT